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带你领略雅思听力的出题原则

2014-8-13 16:34:09 来源:新东方 【字体:

   雅思听力的出题方向多是朝着应用和实践,通过细节题和交际运用来具体表现的。但这些细节的选择和应用也并非没有章法,它们有相当多的“规律性”。这也就是本文中专家要总结的雅思听力考试的“出题原则”,我们一起来寻找考题中的“共性”。

  “列举”出题原则

  雅思听力段落中,最具有规律性的出题暗示,就是列举或增补联系信号词句。一旦出现,就预示着下面的内容是对说明对象进行横向或纵向的分类介绍(或信息添加)。更重要的是,它们常常伴随着下一个考点的引出。

  {真题范例}

  Which THREE attractions can you visit at present by train from Trebirch?

  A a science museum

  B a theme park

  C a climbing wall

  D a mining museum

  E an aquarium

  F a castle

  G a zoo

  ( 剑桥真题 6 Test 2 Section 2 Question 18—20 )

  本题答案: C、D、G。

  原文录音: CUSTOMER: Thanks. And are there lots of places to go to around here?

  RAILPERSON: Oh yes. You can enjoy many days out. Um there’s the Merthyr Mining Museum, which is only half an hour from Trebirch by train. Your children will find it just as fascinating as any theme park and they can ride in the original miners’ lifts and on the coal trains. There are special excursion tickets which include entrance fees. Mainline trains also offer direct services to Bristol, where you can visit the docks or spend a great day out with the children in the zoo, which is set in the parkland that used to surround the old castle. Er, special family a-way-day fares are available for this service now during the school holidays. Er, alternatively, you can be in Birmingham in only an hour and a half, where there’s lots to see and do including the new and internationally -acclaimed climbing wall built on the site of the old aquarium. We will also be running a special service to Newport when the new science museum opens next year, as we anticipate a lot of visitors in the opening weeks. I’d advise you to call early to book your tickets. Is that OK?

  破题密码: 题目: Which THREE attractions can you visit at present by train from Trebirch?

  (如今可以从Trebirch坐火车到哪三个景点参观?)

  第一条列举提示:Um, there’s……

  (那里有一个。。。。。。)

  RAILPERSON在一开始就提出Um there’s the Merthyr Mining Museum, which is only half an hour from Trebirch by train。(坐火车从Trebirch只要半个小时就可以到Merthyr矿业博物馆)与题目对应,所以答案D正确。

  第二条列举提示:…….also offer……

  (同时也提供。。。。。。)

  RAILPERSON之后提到Mainline trains also offer direct services to Bristol, where you can visit the docks or spend a great day out with the children in the zoo,……(列车主要行线同时也提供直达列车到布里斯托,在那里你可以参观船坞,或花一整天和孩子们在动物园里玩耍。。。)和题目对应,所以答案G正确。

  第三条列举提示:Er, alternatively , ……

  (另一个选择是。。。。。。)

  RAILPERSON最后提到Er, alternatively, you can be in Birmingham in only an hour and a half, where there’s lots to see and do including the new and internationally-acclaimed climbing wall built on the site of the old aquarium。

  (另一个选择是,你可以只用一个半小时到达伯明翰,在那里,有很多可以观赏和参加的,包括建在旧水族馆地点的新国际化的攀岩。)和题目对应,所以答案C正确。

  难度系数: ★★★

  {真题范例}

  Facilities available: Golf

  1 …………………。。

  2 ……………………

  ( 剑桥真题 6 Test 1 Section 1 Question 1—2 )

  本题答案:第一题: keep-fit studio(健身房)。

  第二题: swimming(游泳)。

  原文录音:Woman: We do have a keep-fit studio, which is very popular with members, and then as well as that there’s swimming, of course。(我们确实有健身房,在会员中很流行,当然还有游泳。)

  列举提示:as well as

  破题密码:“as well as”作为列举(并列)逻辑联系语,连接了“keep-fit studio”和“swimming”两个考点。此类逻辑联系语在雅思听力考试中出现的概率很高,请考生千万留意。

  难度系数: ★★

  {温馨提示} 在听力段落中,常常对说明对象进行横向或纵向的分类介绍。联系语可以分为以下三类情况:

  ①从时间上,叙述发展阶段(firstly, secondly, thirdly; at the beginning, then, finally… );

  ②从空间上,介绍区域位置(first, second, third stop…);

  ③从同质事物中,介绍区别种类(first, second, third category…)

  但雅思听力考试中更倾向用“also, as well as, another, alternatively”这样的逻辑联系语,来考查考生对朗读节奏点的把握。考生必须在听力段落中,识别出这些“隐含考点”。

  “转折”出题原则

  提醒考生们,在雅思听力考试中一旦听见表示转折或对比关系的逻辑联系语,考生就需要高度集中注意力,这表明说话人将要转向一个新的(或者相反的)信息,是新信息或重要信息(考点)来临的主要标志。由于前后的对比和转折,这部分很容易引起考生的混淆,而相应地,在这个地方出题的概率也很大,通常考查转折后面的那句。

  {真题范例}

  Dan says the charity relies on

  A getting enough bicycles to send regularly。

  B finding new areas which need the bicycles。

  C charging for the bicycles it sends abroad。

  ( 剑桥真题 5 Test 2 Section 2 Question 13 )

  本题答案: A。

   原文录音:The demand for bikes is enormous, which makes them very expensive locally. So we sell them for 5% of the normal price. But in order to continue operating we need to have a constant supply of bikes which we send out every six months。(自行车的需求量是很大的,导致在当地价格很贵。所以我们以正常价格的5%出售。但为了继续运营,我们需要持续的自行车货量,可以每6个月送出。)

  转折提示:but

  破题密码:虽然录音中提到“我们以正常价格的5%出售”,但“but”后却提到了“需要持续的自行车货量,可以每6个月送出”与题目中的答案A“getting enough bicycles to send regularly。(得到足够的自行车定期送出)”对应。所以答案A正确。说明“but”一词预示着说话人思路的变化。很多情况下,雅思听力测试都会对这种变化设问,因而考生必须认真听这一信号后的关键词来获得问题的答案。

  {温馨提示}转折或对比相对来说,在听力段落中是较好判断的,因为它常用明显的引导词来引出。例如:however, nevertheless, while, on the contrary, although, in spite of, otherwise, despite, by contrast, though, whereas, yet, instead, on the other hand等等。这些词很清晰地向我们暗示了转折或对比的语境,请考生留意。

  难度系数: ★★

编辑:饶灿源



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